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Basic Building Techniques

Main Information

This material is prepared just for the tentative concept about construction which can be considered by any Engineers, Builders, Mason, students and public. This material is the extraction of best construction practice as per the Building code of Nepal. We recommend using the material for general information and for general knowledge and consult with expertise in every step which can facilitate you in safe construction. The material can be very beneficial for the construction in and around 1000 sq ft area, the maximum length beam of 14 feet and height limiting to 3 storied or less than that.   Important Things to be consider before Earthquake:

  1. Always consult with Engineers or Technician about any approach and also do research if there are any improving Techniques before constructing your house.
  2. Always take some precaution before any possible catastrophic, Get to know about it and discuss in family and community.
  3. Never listen to any strangers or any other person and take fear for it, Always consult Concern Experts to know about its reality and Never get Panic.
  4. Fix the items or accessories in or around your house, Accident may happen due to falling of things in house so fix your TV, Desk, Bench, Rack and other accessories which can fall and cause some accident.
  5. Identify the safe place within your house and never rush or run during the earthquake, be cautious and make sure you are safe and take steps.
  6. Never place plant pot or any other items that can fall in the roof for decoration propose or any other purpose, if you have to make a good steel boundary for it.
  7. Take care of your water tank in the roof, fix it and ensure it can’t fall easily.
  8. Cover your head with some hard material and try to move in safe place.
  9. Nail the materials and fix it that can fall.
  10. Always have Fist Aid box ready and also have some basic knowledge about it.

References:

  1. Nepal Building Codes
  2. IIT kharagpur Earthquake Resistant Materials
  3. NSET Earthquake Resistant Materials

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General Overview of Earthquake

Earthquake is simply the shaking of the ground by the sudden breaking of tectonic plates (in the Fault Line) of earth’s rocky outermost Crust.   Earth is divided in many plates and those plates are in continuous movement which is very slow and gradual.

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The Movement of Indian plate Over Eurasian Plate, The adjustment and release of force in fault line during earthquake.

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The Record of Earthquake in Nepal so far

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Haiti 7 Rector Killed 2,00,000   7 rector earthquakes killed 2 lakh in Haiti whereas 8.8 rector scale earthquake in Chili killed 700 people.

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Chili 8.8 Rector killed 700 People Chili had adapted Building code and their construction was focused for earthquake resistant construction.

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Fix the Items properly in your house as it also can risk your life during earthquake image027

The site selection for construction of house need to be done with due care. The general Investigation can be done by you.

  1. Dig 1 feet diameter hole for more than 5 feet Height or more or any possible height as far as you can
  2. Once the hole is ready fill the hole with the excavated soil
  3. If the filled soil couldn’t fill the hole than we should understand there need some improvement of soil before construction
  4. If the soil fill exactly with the hole than there must be some precaution that need to be adapted
  5. If there is remaining of soil while filling hole than that place can be appropriate for construction
  6. Follow the same steps this time with some water filled in hole and this help you to roughly understand the soil profile
  7. Repeat the same process for 5-6 different place in the site and there need to be consistency in all place and also consider the pattern of soil in the process.

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The shape, size of the house need to be consider during construction image032image034

If Irregular shape is to be made the building need to be break down as shown in figure. image038image035 image040image041

Length and Height of building should be maintained within 3 times the breath. image043

The systematic arrangement need to be there during construction.

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Column need to be strong in compare to beam as the systematic adjustment need to be maintained. image048

All the Columns need to be systematic in a same grid line.

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Soft Storey need to be avoided else special design consideration need to be maintained.